Validation of New Mix Design Procedure for Cold In-Place Recycling with Foamed Asphalt
The main objective of this study is to validate a new mix design procedure for cold in-place recycling using foamed asphalt (CIR-foam) developed for the Iowa Department of Transportation. First, reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) materials were collected from seven different CIR construction sites located across the state of Iowa. To determine the consistency of a new CIR-foam mix design procedure, the mix design was performed seven times using these RAP materials. The test specimens were prepared using gyratory compactor rather than Marshall hammer because it produced more consistent mixtures for various foamed asphalt contents and curing conditions. The indirect tensile strength test was performed on the vacuum-saturated specimens prepared using each of seven RAP material sources for five different foamed asphalt contents (1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0%), given a fixed moisture content of 4.0%. As the foamed asphalt content increased from 1.0 to 3.0% at 0.5% increments, air voids in the CIR-foam mixtures decreased gradually. The indirect tensile strength of CIR-foam specimens cured for two days at 60C was significantly higher than that of CIR-foam specimens cured for three days at 40°C. Based on the new mix design procedure, the optimum foamed asphalt contents were consistently found at values between 1.5 and 2.5% for all seven different RAP materials. The stiffer residual asphalt required more foamed asphalt, whereas the higher residual asphalt content did not require a smaller amount of foamed asphalt. The raveling test result was very sensitive to the curing time and the foamed asphalt content, such that RAP materials with a large amount of stiff residual asphalt would exhibit more potential for raveling.